LANDAU, LEV DAVIDOVICH


LANDAU, LEV DAVIDOVICH
LANDAU, LEV DAVIDOVICH (1908–1968), Russian physicist and Nobel Prize winner. Born in Baku, Landau was a young prodigy in mathematics and was allowed to register at Baku University in the faculties of chemistry, physics, and mathematics at the age of 14, and graduated from Leningrad University when he was 19. In 1932 he was appointed head of the theoretical department of the Kharkov Physical-Technical Institute and in 1934 was granted his doctorate without presenting a thesis. He became a professor a year later. While working in Copenhagen with niels bohr , he developed a theory of the diamagnetism of metals known as "Landau's diamagnetism." He also published two comprehensive, seminal works on ferro-magnetic substances in 1936 and 1937. He did research in many fields of physics: low temperature; turbulence; acoustics; plasma theory; energy of stars; quantum field theory; and the neutrino. His outstanding contribution was in the field of low temperatures carried out under the auspices of the Institute for Physical Problems in Moscow, which he joined in 1937. In 1962 Landau was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics for his "pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium." Although Landau had been awarded the Stalin Prize three times for his work in theoretical physics, he was imprisoned during Stalin's purge, from 1937 to 1939, allegedly as a German spy. He was released when Professor Peter Kapitza, head of his Institute, declared that he would stop all his own scientific work unless Landau was freed. Landau suffered severe injuries in a car crash in 1962, but intensive medical treatment enabled him to live another six years although without resuming his researches. Among his numerous published works are O svoystvakh metallov pri ochen nizkikh temperaturakh ("Properties of Metals at Very Low Temperatures," 1936); Ob istochnikakh zvezdnoy energii ("Sources of Stellar Energy," 1937); O kolebaniyakh elektronnoy plazmy ("Fluctuations of Electronic Plasma," 1946); and O kvantovoy teorii polya ("Quantum Field Theory," 1956). -BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Dorozynski, The Man They Wouldn't Let Die (1965); V.B. Berestetski, in: Uspekhi fizicheskikh nauk, 64 no. 3 (1958); Prominent Personalities in the U.S.S.R. (1968), S.V. (Maurice Goldsmith)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Landau,Lev Davidovich — Lan·dau (län douʹ), Lev Davidovich. 1908 1968. Soviet physicist. He won a 1962 Nobel Prize for his contributions to low temperature physics. * * * …   Universalium

  • Landau, Lev Davidovich — ▪ Russian physicist born Jan. 9 [Jan. 22, New Style], 1908, Baku, Russian Empire (now Azerbaijan) died April 1, 1968, Moscow, Russia, U.S.S.R.  Soviet theoretical physicist, one of the founders of the quantum theory of condensed matter whose… …   Universalium

  • Landau, Lev (Davidovich) — born Jan. 22, 1908, Baku, Azerbaijan, Russian Empire died April 1, 1968, Moscow, Russia, U.S.S.R. Soviet physicist. After graduating from Leningrad State University, he studied at Niels Bohr s institute in Copenhagen. He is known for his work in… …   Universalium

  • Landau , Lev Davidovich — (1908–1968) Azerbaijani theoretical physicist Landau, whose father was a petroleum engineer and whose mother was a physician, was born in Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan. He studied at the university in his native city (1922–24) and at Leningrad… …   Scientists

  • Landau, Lev Davidovich — (1908–68)    Russian physicist and Nobel laureate, 1962. A child prodigy in mathematics, Landau had completed his formal studies in mathematics and physics at the universities of Baku (his birthplace) and Leningrad by the age of nineteen. He… …   Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament

  • Landau, Lev Davidovich — (1908 68)    Russian physicist. Born in Baku, he studied at the University of Baku and the University of Leningrad. In 1929 he went to Copenhagen to study with Niels Bohr. From 1932 he was employed at the Ukrainian Physico Technical Institute at… …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Lev Davidovich Landau — Lev Landau Pour les articles homonymes, voir Landau. Lev Davidovitch Landau (en russe : Лев Давидович Ландау) (22 janvier 1908 1er avril 1968) était un physicien théoricien russe, prix Nobel de physique en 1962 pour ses… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Lev Davidovich Landau — (Лев Давидович Ландау) (22 de enero de 1908 1 de abril de 1968) fue un físico y matemático de la Unión Soviética, nacido en Bakú, Azerbaiyán. Tuvo un amplio campo de trabajo, que incluye la teoría de la superconductividad y la superfluidez, la …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Lev Davidovich Landau — noun Soviet physicist who worked on low temperature physics (1908 1968) • Syn: ↑Landau • Instance Hypernyms: ↑physicist …   Useful english dictionary

  • Lev Landau — Infobox Scientist name = Lev Davidovich Landau imagesize = 170px birth date = birth date|1908|1|22|mf=y birth place = Baku, Russian Empire death date = death date and age|1968|4|1|1908|1|22 death place = Moscow, Soviet Union field = Physics alma… …   Wikipedia


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